By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
Half I. creation: 1. creation F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. innovations and techniques: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. sturdy isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic classes: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, okay. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. residence and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. building and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; normal index
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Because of the relative scarcity of reliable dates with high stratigraphic precision, geomathematical/statistical techniques for direct estimation of stage boundaries are not easily applicable in the Paleozoic, and various best-ﬁt line techniques are utilized. Tucker and McKerrow (1995, their Fig. 1) plotted selected age dates for Cambrian–Devonian from wellestablished stratigraphic levels against their fossil age in an iterative manner, juggling radiometric dates of selected samples against their stratigraphic age determined by fossils such that a straight ﬁt was created relative to the adjusted stage boundaries.
1). 1). ” The two concepts of geochronologic and chronostratigraphic scales are now united by formally establishing markers within continuous intervals of the stratigraphic record to ∗ A Geologic Time Scale 2004, eds. Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, and Alan G. Smith. Published by Cambridge University Press. c F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg, and A. G. Smith 2004. 20 Note: To avoid misleading readers by using the term “age” to refer to a time span (as in the current International Stratigraphic Guide) instead of to a numerical date, we will generally use the term “stage” in this book to refer to both the time interval and the rocks deposited during that time interval.
1 Duality of some principle geochronologic (time) and chronostratigraphic (time–rock) unitsa Geologic stages and other international subdivisions of the Phanerozoic portion of the geologic scale are deﬁned by their lower boundaries at Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs). The main criteria for a GSSP are that primary and secondary markers provide the means for global correlation. GSSP theory and criteria are outlined, the status of ratiﬁed GSSPs provided, and three examples discussed of prominent GSSPs.