By Herman R. Van Gunsteren
Does important citizenship require ethical consensus? Or is it the power to prepare our alterations, that permits humans to reside jointly as voters in a republic? while liberal, republican, and communitarian theories of citizenship analyzed the stipulations of citizenship, the critical message of this publication is that the sensible workout of citizenship, less than stipulations which are faraway from excellent, is the most resource of its power. rather than arguing for extra participation, it makes a speciality of the citizenship of these who, for no matter what cause, are already energetic within the public sphere. Herman van Gunsteren develops a thought of citizenship well matched to the period of political reform that was once inaugurated via the revolutions of 1989.
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Additional info for A theory of citizenship: organizing plurality in contemporary democracies
An unh o r n person becomes "known"' by acquiring an identity, a place within existing social schemes. The way in wfiieh identities relate to each other is often embedded in the way in which the identities themselves are constructed. "" In the ordering of pluraliv through the assignment of cmtrasting or relative identities, various mchilnisms of rankhg, exclusion, and marginaiization of individuals and groups are at work, Take, for instmce, the ident-ity of "Jew'hnd the ways h hvhich it has acquired various places witihin different systems: as a religious category vis8-vis Islam or Christianity; as a racial category vis-a-vis (t-hat is, infclrior to) the 'Xrym'brrxce; and as a cultural category indicating a people of matrilineal (as opposed to patrilineal) &scent.
Terns of living in which they have become enhangled. The exercise of the right to live and organize one's life according to one" own &sights would become m mbearabjle burden if' me had to start from zero, wi'rhnut being allowed to choose fmm a menu of available elements, Fhally, phrality is valued also because it makes for vitality m d resilience. But ruler; of structure, deeper than natural seledion itself, guarantee that cl-rmplex features must bristle with multiple possibilities-and evolution wins its required flexibility thanks to messiness, redundancy, and lack af perfect f t .
Examples arc. the ""no go" areas in lafge cities, mafia activities, and ncw communications networks. Liberal prhciples rclmain the same, but social rcaliv and the kind. of plurality it generates are changing. In our discussjon, therefore, we cannot ignore the changjng social context within which pluralq appears m d is processed. In todays societ~which we may call postmdem, late-modern, or 'The Unhown Society-the label ic; of mhor importmc luraiity has a different place and form lhan it had. in tthe modern industrial society of the 1950s.