By William I. Woods, Bruno Glaser (auth.), Dr. Bruno Glaser, Professor William I. Woods (eds.)
The regenerative traits pointed out in prehistoric, anthropogenic Amazonian darkish earths recommend that notoriously infertile tropical soils should be vastly stronger. Soil enhancement practices via historic Amerindians allowed them to domesticate the land intensively, with no need to continually transparent new fields from wooded area. As expanding populations position ever higher strain on tropical forests, this legacy of wealthy, 'living' soils warrants additional learn within the look for high-yield, land-intensive, but sustainable different types of administration. The overseas staff of members to this quantity offers numerous stances centering on elements of the beginning, distribution, variability, endurance, and use of Amazonian darkish earths.
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Extra info for Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time
The relationship between Amerindian population densities and distributions and environment is still hotly debated. Despite earlier suggestions to the contrary, there is mounting evidence that indigenous societies along major waterways attained significant complexity by the late prehistoric period (Roosevelt 1992), with the varzea sustaining dense populations with complex sociopolitical organization. Furthermore, recent archaeological evidence suggests that complex societies were present in whitewater, clearwater and blackwater environments alike (Heckenberger et al.
The Manduquinha site was settled and its inhabitants occupied the area for around 300 years. Throughout this period much organic material was incorporated into the soil. As already mentioned, ethnographic data show that the organic occupation residues were often randomly deposited in the surroundings and in some cases inside the habitations. Kern (1996) supposed that due to the human occupation, the Manduquinha site was stage for an intense accumulation of organic material that overtook normalleaching processes (Fig.
As these trapped water bodies ultimately dried out, the living organisms within them died, decomposed, and, eonsequently, enriehed the soils at their base. Ranzani et al. (1962) and Andrade (1986) classified the A horizon of the soil with ABE as being a "plaggen epipedon", that is, intentional ineorporation of nutrient-rieh material into the soil by management praetiees. Ranzani et al. (1962) attributed ABE fertility to the effieient use of the earth by the people of Andean origin who ineorporated animal and vegetative ashes into the soil, with predominanee of the former.