By Will Fowler
The pronunciamiento, a proper record of grievances designed to spark political switch in nineteenth-century Mexico, was once a not easy but helpful perform. even though pronunciamientos not often completed the pursuits for which they have been undertaken and occasionally led to armed uprising, they have been still either celebrated and venerated, and the perceptions and representations of pronunciamientos themselves mirrored the Mexican people’s reaction to those “revolutions.”
The 3rd in a chain of books analyzing the pronunciamiento, this assortment addresses the complex legacy of pronunciamientos and their position in Mexican political tradition. The essays discover the sacralization and legitimization of those revolts and in their leaders within the nation’s heritage and examine why those celebrations proved eventually useless in consecrating the pronunciamiento as a strength for stable, instead of one prompted via wishes for strength, advertising, and plunder. Celebrating Insurrection deals readers interpretations of acts of party and commemoration that designate the uneasy adoption of pronunciamientos as Mexico’s most popular technique of effecting political switch in this turbulent interval within the nation’s history.
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Extra info for Celebrating Insurrection: The Commemoration and Representation of the Nineteenth-Century Mexican Pronunciamiento
It should be pointed it out that much historiographical ground has been covered in order to reach this interpretation. Even though it remains the case that we are still far from reaching a consensus on the issue of pronunciamientos — (What were they? ) — recent research has helped us appreciate that they were more than just a vehicle to attain power by force. 3 The principal proponents of the Spanish militaristic school of thought, historians such as Raymond Carr, José Luis Comellas, and Miguel Alonso Baquer, were subject to criticism more than twenty years ago by Memory and Representation of del Riego’s Pronunciamiento 3 Roberto Blanco Valdés, who dismissed their ideas as overly praetorian and insisted that, on the contrary, the outcome of the political events of the period was determined by “activities led by civilian groups, revolutionaries or counterrevolutionaries, as well as [by .
S. travelers represented the pronunciamiento in their nineteenth-century travelogues, letters, and dispatches, with all their prejudices and, in some cases, imperialist ambitions. To the Western gaze the pronunciamiento was a farcical practice, comical yet intensely irritating, that was ridiculed to prove that the Mexican people were incapable of governing themselves. There is little ambivalence in these accounts. Most foreigners who wrote down their observations on the pronunciamiento phenomenon regarded it as the source of the country’s chronic instability.
19. Beezley, “New Celebrations,” 131. 20. Díaz beneﬁted from a positive reevaluation in the 1990s. For a discussion of this view with its overtly neoliberal political overtones, see Paul Garner’s discussion of “neo-porﬁrismo” in his Porﬁrio Díaz, 12–15. S. Army takes Mexico City Manuel de la Peña y Peña, president, forms new government Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo grants half Chronology 1848–51 1851–53 of Mexico’s national territory to the United States José Joaquín de Herrera, president Mariano Arista, president 1852 26 July 13 September 20 October Plan of Blancarte Second Plan of Blancarte Plan del Hospicio 1853 January–February Juan Bautista Ceballos, president February– April Manuel María Lombardini, president 1853–1855 s a n ta a n n a ’ s dic tat or s h i p 1854 1 March 11 March Revolution of Ayutla begins (see chapter 8) Plan of Acapulco (see chapter 8) 1855 8 August Plan of San Luis Potosí; Santa Anna’s last regime falls 1855–1876 r e for m pe r iod 1855 4 October 22 November 1855–58 Juan Álvarez, president Ley Juárez Ignacio Comonfort, president 1856 January February–March Six-day siege of Puebla Siege of Puebla Chronology li 11 April 25 June Ley Iglesias Ley Lerdo 1857 5 February 17 December Federal Constitution published Coup d’etat of Tacubaya (see chapter 8) 1858–1860 Civil War of the Reform 1858 11 January 4 May 1859 31 January 1860 March September October 25 December 1861 March 17 July lii Pronunciamiento in Mexico City (see chapter 8); Félix Zuloaga, president of Rebel Conservative Government (Mexico City) Júarez becomes president of “Legitimate” Government (Veracruz) Miguel Miramón, Conservative president Armistice Plan between Juárez and Miramón Santos Degollado’s Plan de Paciﬁcación Armistice Plan between Zaragoza and Castillo Liberal forces recover Mexico City Benito Juárez, president (after winning elections) Government suspends payment on foreign debt Chronology 1862–67 1862 7 January 5 May 1863 19 May 9 June 10 June 18 June 3 October 1864 5 January 10 April 12 June 12 October 1865 14 August Chronology The French Intervention (see chapters 8 and 9) Allied ﬂeets land in Veracruz (Britain, France, and Spain) Mexican army succeeds in defeating the French at the Battle of Puebla (see chapter 9) French take Puebla Juárez’s government ﬂees to San Luis Potosí French take Mexico City Regency Council is formed with Nepomuceno Almonte, Bishop Pelagio Antonio de Labastida, and Mariano Salas Maximilian accepts the throne at Miramar (Europe) French take Guadalajara; Juárez’s government ﬂees to the north Maximilian formally accepts Mexican crown Maximilian and Carlota arrive in Mexico City Juárez’s government ﬂees to Chihuahua Juárez’s government ﬂees to Paso del Norte liii 5 September 1866 January 17 June September 30 November 26 December 1867 14 January 5 February Maximilian’s Colonization Law Napoleon III orders phased withdrawal of French troops Juárez returns to Chihuahua City Last stage of French withdrawal begins Maximilian decides to remain in Mexico Juárez arrives in Durango 19 June 21 June Republicans recover Guadalajara French troops order evacuation of Mexico City Juárez arrives in San Luis Potosí (see chapter 10) Porﬁrio Díaz liberates Puebla (see chapter 9) Last French troops leave Veracruz Querétaro is taken; Maximilian and Miramón are captured Maximilian and Miramón are executed Porﬁrio Díaz enters Mexico City 1867–1876 t h e r e s t or e d r e pu bl ic 1867 15 July October 18 December Juárez arrives in Mexico City Juárez, president (after winning elections) Peasant revolts in central Mexico 1868 28 February Pronunciamiento of Julio López Chávez 21 February 2 April 12 March 15 May liv Chronology 8 May 1869 12 April April 20 August 1870 June September 1871 February June 12 October 8 November 21 November 1872 29 February 2 March 5 March 17 May Chronology Juárez obtains further extraordinary powers Manuel Lozada’s circular for the defense of village lands is published Agrarian rebellions start across central and western Mexico, 1869–1870 Pronunciamiento of Villa de Cedral (see chapter 10) Jimenistas seize control of Tuxtla, Guerrero Gran Círculo de Obreros de México is formed Anti-Juarista rebellions in Nuevo León, Zacatecas, and Durango Anti-Juárez rebellion in Tampico is quelled Juárez, president (reelected) Porﬁrio Díaz stages failed pronunciamiento of La Noria (see chapter 11) Anti-Juárez revolt in Puebla begins Government troops retake Aguascalientes Government troops retake Zacatecas Government troops start siege of Puebla Congress extends Juárez’s extraordinary powers lv 9 July 9 July 18 July 1875 1876 16 November 19 November 20 November 23 November 1876–1910 lvi Government troops retake Monterrey and end rebellion in Nuevo León Juárez dies Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, president Cristero revolt starts in Michoacán and Jalisco Lerdo de Tejada, president (reelected); he is accused of electoral fraud; Porﬁrio Díaz launches the Pronunciamiento of Tuxtepec (see chapter 9) Díaz takes Tecoac, Tlaxcala Díaz takes Puebla Lerdo leaves Mexico City Díaz takes Mexico City and becomes president t h e p or f i r i at o Chronology rodr ig o mor e no gu t i é r r e z One.