By R. del Río, F. Medeiro, B. Pérez-Verdú, J. M. De la Rosa, Á Rodríguez-V´zquez (auth.)
CMOS Cascade Sigma-Delta Modulators for Sensors and Telecom: errors research and functional Design starts off with an instructional presentation of the basics of low-pass sigma-delta modulators, their purposes, and their most typical architectures. It then offers an exhaustive research of SC circuit mistakes with a twofold end result. at the one hand, compact expressions are derived to help layout plans and quickly top-down layout. at the different, specified behavioral types are provided to help exact verification. This set of versions permits the clothier to figure out the necessary requirements for the several modulator construction blocks and shape the foundation of a scientific layout process. The booklet is finished in next chapters with the designated presentation of 3 high-performance modulator ICs: the 1st are meant for DSL-like functions, while the 3rd one is meant for automobile sensors.
CMOS Cascade Sigma-Delta Modulators for Sensors and Telecom: errors research and functional Design comprises hugely priceless info that's established to provide the reader the required perception on tips to layout SC sigma-delta modulators.
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Extra info for CMOS Cascade Sigma-Delta Modulators for Sensors and Telecom: Error Analysis and Practical Design
3, the use of high-order shaping gives rise to stability problems. 31). • Dependence on the oversampling ratio, OSR. 31) that the DR of an ideal Lth -order 6' converter increases with OSR in L + 1 e 2 bit/octave . This is shown in Fig. 15, where the DR and ENOB are plotted as a function of the oversampling ratio and the modulator order, in case of a single-bit internal quantizer. Note that for OSR ! 4 , the combined action of oversampling and noise-shaping considerably improves performance. 14 Illustration of NTF f for different shaping orders ( L ) in the 6' modulator.
The output of the stages can be processed in the digital domain in order to provide an overall output in which the presence of E 1 z is cancelled out. 61) that Y z contains only a delayed version of the modulator input and a 3rd-order shaped version of the 2nd-stage quantization error, whereas the transfer function of the 1st-stage quantization error is nulled thanks to the cancellation logic. 62) ° –1 3 ¯ NTF 2 z = d 1 1 – z so that its performance is similar to that of an ideal 6'M with a 3rd-order FIR noise transfer function, but unconditionally stable by construction.
Note that peak SNR s of approximately 91dB are obtained. If we compare this value with the peak SNR achieved by a stable 4th-order singleloop 6'M with all NTF -zeros at DC (Fig. 24a), the performance is improved in 30dB. The improvement is still around 10dB in comparison with Fig. 24b, where the four zeros are optimally spread over the signal band †14. The potentialities of cascade 6'Ms have led us to propose a family of cascades that can be easily expanded to any order, while preserving a low systematic loss of resolution (only 1bit) and a high overload level.