By Dorothy Hoobler, Thomas Hoobler
;Confucianism. international Religions КНИГИ ; КУЛЬТУРА и ИСКУССТВО Автор:Dorothy Hoobler, Thomas Hoobler Название: Confucianism. international ReligionsИздательство: Chelsea residence PublicationsГод: 2009 Формат: pdf Размер: 5,89 MB Язык: английский Для сайта: www.mirknig.comLong disregarded as inappropriate via communist China, Confucianism is experiencing a brand new resurgence in China and worldwide. So-called New Confucianists search to discover a team spirit among their faith and the trendy international, rejecting any kind of cultural isolationism. based in China 2,500 years in the past through a grasp philosopher,Confucianism was once a approach of moral habit and social accountability that developed into one of many nice non secular traditions of the East. It has performed a profoundly very important function within the evolution of chinese language civilization over the centuries and has had a marked impact on different Asian cultures together with these of Vietnam, Korea, and Japan. "Confucianism, 3rd version" in actual fact outlines the historic improvement of Confucianism, offers the elemental tenets of Confucian notion, strains its evolution in keeping with the occasions of chinese language background, and examines its enduring relevance to the modern international. insurance comprises: easy techniques and ideology ofConfucianism ; the lessons of Confucius; Confucian literature, together with The 5 Classics; the consequences of political interference from China, Europe, and the U.S.; and recovery ofConfucianism within the twenty first century.0
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The Vietnamese government developed a Confucian-trained civil service. In 1070 a temple of Confucius was built in Hanoi, the capital. Five years later the first civil service examinations were held there. These exams, held every three years for the next 844 years, required years of study and a thorough absorption of Chinese culture. Chinese language, writing, literature, and philosophy became a necessary part of the education of all upperclass Vietnamese. Just as in China, thousands of students crowded the regional test centers to take the examinations, sheltering in tents pitched in large fields.
Like Confucius, Mencius was a brilliant teacher and a disappointed government official. As a young man he had studied under a disciple of Confucius’s grandson, and he always lamented that he had not studied with Confucius himself. Yet there was a basic difference in personality between the two men. Mencius was immensely proud of his aristocratic background. His mother, widowed early, devoted her life to seeing that his education was a good one. When she died he mourned and buried her with such elaborate ceremony that his own disciples were embarrassed.
One of his old students, Jan Chiu, had earned the gratitude of the ruler by helping Lu win a victory against a neighboring state. At Jan’s urging the duke agreed to give Confucius the honors he deserved. Though Confucius was 67 he was still vigorous, and at last he seemed on the verge of gaining a position of respect, if not power. However when Confucius came to the duke’s court he was asked how to make people pay their taxes. As a former tax collector Confucius was expected to have some ideas.