Download e-book for iPad: Discovering Knowledge in Data: An Introduction to Data by Daniel T. Larose, Chantel D. Larose

By Daniel T. Larose, Chantel D. Larose

The second one version of a hugely praised, winning reference on information mining, with thorough insurance of massive facts purposes, predictive analytics, and statistical analysis.

Includes new chapters on:
• Multivariate Statistics
• getting ready to version the information, and
• Imputation of lacking information, and
• an Appendix on info Summarization and Visualization

• deals huge insurance of the R statistical programming language
• comprises 280 end-of-chapter exercises
• incorporates a significant other web site with additional assets for all readers, and
• Powerpoint slides, a suggestions guide, and advised initiatives for teachers who undertake the publication

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Additional resources for Discovering Knowledge in Data: An Introduction to Data Mining (2nd Edition)

Example text

More about standard deviations in the Appendix. 11 Z-Standardized data are still right-skewed, not normally distributed. 12 Mean Right-skewed data have positive skewness. 13). 9) of course, the mean, median, and mode are all equal, and so the skewness equals zero. Much real-world data are right-skewed, including most financial data. Leftskewed data are not as common, but often occurs when the data are right-censored, such as test scores on an easy test, which can get no higher than 100. 14 to calculate the skewness for these variables.

It is a common misconception that variables that have had the Z-score standardization applied to them follow the standard normal Z distribution. This is not correct! 14), but the distribution may still be skewed. 11. 10 is not symmetric, and so cannot be normally distributed. 10 5 Find 2000 3000 weightlbs Original data. more about standard deviations in the Appendix. 11 Z-Standardized data are still right-skewed, not normally distributed. 12 Mean Right-skewed data have positive skewness. 13). 9) of course, the mean, median, and mode are all equal, and so the skewness equals zero.

Association rules are of the form “If antecedent then consequent,” together with a measure of the support and confidence associated with the rule. For example, a particular supermarket may find that, of the 1000 customers shopping on a Thursday night, 200 bought diapers, and of those 200 who bought diapers, 50 bought beer. Thus, the association rule would be “If buy diapers, then buy beer,” with a support of 200/1000 = 20% and a confidence of 50/200 = 25%. Examples of association tasks in business and research include r Investigating the proportion of subscribers to your company’s cell phone plan that respond positively to an offer of an service upgrade, r Examining the proportion of children whose parents read to them who are themselves good readers, r Predicting degradation in telecommunications networks, r Finding out which items in a supermarket are purchased together, and which items are never purchased together, r Determining the proportion of cases in which a new drug will exhibit dangerous side effects.

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